Species List
Classification of Crocodilians

CLASSIFICATION | FUTURE TRENDS | HOW MANY SPECIES? | OTHER DEBATES
REFERENCES | SPECIES LIST


1. CLASSIFICATION

2. FUTURE TRENDS

3. NO. OF SPECIES?

4. OTHER DEBATES

5. REFERENCES



WANT MORE DETAIL? CHECK OUT KING & BURKE 1997
Link to King & Burke 1997
CROC CHECKLIST



READ THE DEBATE ABOUT CAIMAN CLASSIFICATION
Link to Brian Warren's Caiman Taxonomy discussion
CAIMAN TAXONOMY



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REFERENCES & FURTHER READING

Although few references have been specifically cited within the text, the following is a list of citations which would prove useful if you wanted a lot more in-depth information on some of the topics discussed regarding crocodilian classification.

Brochu, C.A., 1997a. Fossils, morphology, divergence timing, and the phylogenetic relationships of Gavialis. Systematic Biology, 46:479-522

Brochu, C.A., 1997b. A review of Leidyosuchus (Crocodyliformes, Eusuchia) from the Cretaceous through Eocene of North America. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 17:679-697

Brochu, C.A., 1999. Phylogeny, systematics, and historical biogeography of Alligatoroidea. Society of Vertebrate Paleontology Memoir 6:9-100

Bryant, H.B., 1994. Comments on the phylogenetic definition of taxon names and conventions regarding the naming of crown clades. Systematic Biology, 43:124-130

Bryant, H.B., 1997. Cladistic information in phylogenetic definitions and designated phylogenetic contexts for the use of taxon names. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 62:495-503

Cantino, P.D., R.G. Olmstead, and S.J. Wagstaff, 1997. A comparison of phylogenetic nomenclature with the current system: a botanical case study. Systematic Biology, 46:313-331

Caramaschi, U. and M.A. Soares, 1995. An Invalid Neotype Designation for Caiman latirostris (Daudin, 1802) (Crocodylia, Alligatoridae). Journal of Herpetology 29(1): 136-137

Crea, M., J. Merler, and R. Quintana, 1989. Contribucion a la Sistematica de Caiman latirostris (Daudin, 1802) (Crocodylia, Alligatoridae). Anales del Museo de Historia Natural de Valparaíso 20: 75-80.

Densmore, L.D., and P.S. White, 1991. The systematics and evolution of the Crocodilia as suggested by restriction endonuclease analysis of mitochondrial and nuclear ribosomal DNA. Copeia, 1991:602-615

Deraniyagala, P.E.P., 1939. Archosauria pp. ix-24, 307-412 in Deraniyagala, P. E. P., ed. The Tetrapod Reptiles of Ceylon. Colombo Museum, Colombo

Freiberg, M.A. and A.L. de Carvalho, 1965. El Yacare Sudamericano Caiman latirostris (Daudin). Physis 25 (XXV)(70): 351-360.

Gatesy, J., R. de Salle, and W. Wheeler, 1993. Alignment-ambiguous nucleotide sites and the exclusion of systematic data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 2:152-157

Gray, J.E., 1874. On Crocodilus johnstoni Krefft. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London: 177-178

Hass, C.A., M.A. Hoffman, L.D. Densmore, and L.R. Maxson, 1992. Crocodilian evolution: insights from immunological data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 1:193-201

Hemming, F., 1956. Proposed use of the plenary powers to ensure that the specific name 'mississipiensis' Daudin [1801-2], as published in the combination 'Crocodilus mississipiensis' shall be the oldest available name for the North American alligator (Class Reptilia). Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 12(6): 163-175

Hemming, F., 1958. Direction 97: Determination under the Plenary Powers of the specific name to be used for the North American Alligator and of the spelling to be used for that name (Class Reptilia) [Opinion supplementary to Opinion 92]. Opinions and Declarations Rendered by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 1.F(F.8): 87-126.

Hoogmoed, M.S., and U. Gruber, 1983. Spix and Wagler type specimens of reptiles and amphibians in the Natural History Musea in Munich (Germany) and Leiden (The Netherlands). Spixiana Supplement 9: 319-415.

King, F. Wayne, and Russell L. Burke (eds.), 1997. Crocodilian, Tuatara, and Turtle Species of the World: An Online Taxonomic and Geographic Reference [Online]. Association of Systematics Collections, Washington, D.C. 294 p. Available: http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/natsci/herpetology/turtcroclist/

Krefft, G., 1873. Remarks on Australian crocodiles, and description of a new species. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London: 334-335

Laurenti, J.N., 1768 (reprint 1966). Genus XV: Crocodylus, pp. 53-55 in Synopsin Reptilium. A. Asher and Co., Amsterdam.

Lee, M.S.Y., 1996. Stability in meaning and content of taxon names: an evaluation of crown-clade definitions. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 263:1103-1109

Longman, H.A., 1925. Crocodilus johnsoni Krefft. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 8(2): 95-102.

Medem, F., 1955. A New Subspecies of Caiman sclerops from Colombia. Fieldiana Zoology 37: 339-344.

Medem, F., 1960. Notes on the Paraguay caiman, Caiman yacare. Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum im Berlin 36(1): 129-142.

Medem, F., 1981. Nomenclatura, pp. 53-64 in Los Crocodylia de Sur America Vol. I: Colombia. Ministerio de Educacion Nacional, Bogota.

Mook, C.C. and G.E. Mook, 1940. Some Problems in Crocodilian Nomenclature. American Museum Novitates 1098: 1-10.

Poe, S., 1997. Data set incongruence and the phylogeny of crocodilians. Systematic Biology, 45:393-414

de Quieroz, K., 1995. Phylogenetic approaches to classification and nomenclature, and the history of taxonomy (an alternative interpretation). Herpetological Review, 26:79-80

de Queiroz, K., and J. Gauthier, 1990. Phylogeny as a central principle in taxonomy: phylogenetic definitions of taxon names. Systematic Zoology, 39:307-322.

de Queiroz, K., and J. Gauthier, 1992. Phylogenetic taxonomy. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 23:449-480.

Ross, C.A., 1990. Crocodylus raninus S. Muller and Schlegel, A Valid Species of Crocodile (Reptilia: Crocodylidae) from Borneo. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 103(4): 955-961.

Ross, C.A., 1992. Designation of a Lectotype for Crocodylus raninus S. Muller and Schlegel (Reptilia: Crocodylidae), the Borneo Crocodile. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 105(2): 400-402.

Rowe, T., 1986. Definition and diagnosis in the phylogenetic system. Systematic Zoology, 36:208-211

Rowe, T. and J. Gauthier, 1992. Ancestry, paleontology, and the definition of the name Mammalia. Systematic Biology, 41:372-378.

Russell, A. P. and X.-C. Wu, 1997. The Crocodylomorpha at and between geological boundaries: the Baden-Powell approach to change? Zoology 100: 164-182

Salisbury, S.W., and P.M.A. Willis, 1996. A new crocodylian from the Early Eocene of southeastern Queensland and a preliminary investigation of the phylogenetic relationships of crocodyloids. Alcheringa, 20:179-227

Schmidt, K.P., 1956. On the Status and Relations of Crocodylus mindorensis. Fieldiana: Zoology 33(5): 535-539.

Sereno, P.C., 1999. Definitions in phylogenetic taxonomy: critique and rationale. Systematic Biology, 48:329-351.

Stejneger, L., 1933. Crocodilian Nomenclature. Copeia 1933(3): 117-120.

Wyss, A.R., and J. Meng, 1996. Application of phylogenetic taxonomy to poorly-resolved crown clades: a stem-modified node-based definition of Rodentia. Systematic Biology, 45:559-567.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Thanks must surely go to both Chris Brochu and Brian Warren for their comments which have greatly improved this discussion on classification and taxonomy, as well as their suggestions for further reading (even if they don't necessarily agree with all of them).

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